The ants
The Formicidae (Formicidae), commonly known as ants, are a family of insectossociales which, as wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from ancestors similar to a WaSP in the Mid-Cretaceous, done between 110 and 130millones of years, diversified after the expansion of plants with flower by the world. They are one of the most successful Zoological groups and more than 12 000especies, with estimates that more than 14 000, and a few current trends which predict a total of more than 21 000 are currently classified. They are easily identified by their antennae in angle and its structure in tressecciones with a narrow waist. The branch of Entomology that studies them is known as myrmecology.
They form colonies of a size ranging from a few dozen predatory individuals living in small cavidadesnaturales, to highly organised colonies which may occupy large territories composed by millions of individuals. These large colonies consist mostly of sterile females without wings to formancastas of «worker», «soldiers» and other specialized groups. Ant colonies also have some fertile males and one or more fertile females called "Queens". These coloniasson described sometimes as superorganisms, since ants appear to operate as a single entity, collectively working in support of the colony.
They have colonised nearly all land areas of the planet; the only places lacking indigenous dehormigas are Antarctica and some remote or inhospitable Islands. Ants thrive in most of these ecosystems and it is estimated that they can form 15-25% of the biomass of animals terrestres.4 is estimated that there are between one trillion (1015) and ten thousand trillion (1016) ants living on Earth. Considered that their success in as many environments is due to social suorganizacion and its ability to modify habitats, its use of resources and its defense capability. Their long co-evolution with other species has led the adesarrollar relations Mimetic, commensal, parasitic, and mutualistic.
Their societies are characterized by the division of labour, communication between individuals and ability to solve problems complejos.6 these parallels with human societies have long been inspiration and subject of numerous studies.
Many human cultures use them as food, medicine and as a ritual object. Algunasespecies are highly valued in his role as biological control agents. However, their ability to exploit resources causes that the ants come into conflict with humans, since puedendanar crops and invade buildings. Some species, like (genus Solenopsis) fire ants, are considered invasive species, since they have settled in new areas where have sidointroducidas casually.
Some Ant species are considered pests, 171 and, because of the adaptive nature desus colonies, it is almost impossible to eliminate them altogether. Therefore, pest management focuses on controlling local populations, rather than attempting to delete an entire colony, and as part of the attempts to control are temporary solutions.
With consideration of pest species include pavement Ant, Camponotus, Anoplolepisgracilipes ants, Pharaoh Ant, Linepithema humile, Tapinoma sessile, Solenopsis invicta, Myrmica rubra and the genus Camponotus. Populations are controlled by medium decebos of insecticide, in granulated or liquid form. Ants collect the bait as if it were food and lead him to the mound, where the insecticide is inadvertently transmitted to other members of the colony by trophallaxis.
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